Copper is the most noble of the first row transition metals and occurs in small deposits in several countries. Ores of copper include chalcanthite atacamite ,Cuprite , copper glance and malachite . however 80% of the world copper production comes from the ore chalcopyrite . the extraction of copper from chalcopyrite invovles partial roasting . removal of iron and self-reduction.
In self-reduction, the reducing species is