Reduction to free metal: some of the methods commonly used to get free metal from the concentrates ore are below.
Smelting: The process of extracting a metal in the state of fusions is called smelting. In this process, the ore is mixed with carbon and heated in a suitable furnace
Electrolytic reduction process: This process is used in the extraction of the alkali and alkaline earth metals, zinc and aluminium.
Self-reduction process: The sulphide ores of less electropositive metals like Hg, Pb, Cu etc., are heated in the air so as to convert part of the ore into oxide or sulphate which then reacts with the remaining sulphide ore to give the metal.
In the metallurgical extraction of zinc from ZnO, the reducing agent used is :